1.2 - Production sectors

Top  Agriculture

Production trends

National GDP grew in 2006, a good result that is due mainly to a fine performance by industry and services. Agriculture, however, was not an active part of this recovery as it recorded a drop of three percentage points on last year's figures. This negative trend has continued since 2002, stopping only briefly in 2004; but this was a chance result and served only to compensate for particularly negative 2003.
The lack of growth in this primary sector, which is being reorganised as a result of the reform of the EU agricultural policies of 2005, is also due to economic trends. The drop in production-felt most in the crops sector-is the result of a disappointing year for yield, which was mainly due to unfavourable weather conditions. Furthermore, low agricultural profits and structural weaknesses influenced production, causing an accumulated loss of 7.6 percentage points over the last two years.
At current prices, in 2006, the Veneto saw a 2% increase on last year in gross agricultural production: exceeding 4,400 million euro. However, these figures are deceptive as an INEA (National Institute of Agricultural Economics) report states that the unfavourable weather in the Veneto caused a drop of about 4% in economic aggregate in real terms. This reduction, which was seriously affected by the situation of horticultural crops, was mainly caused by a sharp decrease in production rather than by prices, which stayed at good levels. (Table 1.2.1).
The outlook for permanent crops is promising and livestock farms managed to maintain their turnover despite a drop in production; the production of horticultural crops, however, was in difficulty.
In 2006, horticultural crops suffered a sharp drop in production (about 9%). Corn, the region's main crop, was particularly affected on account of both unfavourable weather and phytosanitary conditions, with production dropping by a total of 15%. Among the cereals, bread wheat performed well with production increasing by a total of 14%.
Industrial crops, such as sugar beet, experienced a sharp fall both in terms of production, which was affected by the Common Market Organisation (CMO) reform, and of yield, which was affected by poor weather conditions.
Worth mentioning is Veneto farmers' renewed interest in sunflowers, which grew by 31%. This increase appears to confirm the potential of this oil seed, which can also be used in the agro-energy field.
Regarding animal husbandry, the cattle and pigs sector performed favourably, but the poultry sector was still in difficulty due to bird flu hysteria, which lasted until August 2006.
As for permanent crops, the climate in 2006 favoured vines in particular, with grape production up by +5.1% and wine production up by +2.4% on the previous year.
Italy produced more than 47 million hectolitres of wine in 2006. The Veneto produced fifteen percent and, alongside Puglia, confirmed its position as Italy's principal wine-producing region. The Veneto also came outright top in the production of Typical Geographical Indication (IGT wine) with more than 4 million hectolitres.
Over the last few years, the quality of Veneto wine has increased; less table wine is being produced and the numbers of Controlled and Guaranteed Designation of Origin (DOCG), Controlled Designation of Origin (DOC) and IGT wines are on the increase. Over the last few years, table wine has dropped by more than 60 percentage points, while in the last year alone DOCG and DOC wines have leaped by +5% and IGT wines by +1.5%. The majority of these IGT wines are produced in the provinces of Verona and Treviso, which once again confirm their specialisation in this field. (Figure 1.2.1).

Wine exports

This report focuses on the analysis of typical-product exports. Wine, which is recognised as a cornerstone of Italy's culture, is one of these. In the Veneto, vine growing and wine production are a clear example of the strong link between economic needs and environmental valorisation, between tradition and innovation.
Wine exports took off in 2006, both nationally and regionally.
With hectolitres rising by +15% and value by +6.5% on 2005, Italy's wine industry performed brilliantly. It produced more than 18 million hectolitres (37% of international production), beating both its main rivals France and Spain to become the world's leading wine exporter.
Germany is the biggest market, followed by United States and England. Although export growth to these countries was marginal, exports to Eastern Europe, and especially to new EU member states, increased by 247% in quantity and by 79% in value in Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Bulgaria, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania, and Hungary.
The Veneto contributes consistently to Italy's performance worldwide: it is the leading exporter in terms of value, which rose by 4.7% on last year, and it holds a market share of more than 27% of the national total (Figure 1.2.2).
An in-depth investigation of the Veneto's performance reveals how the European Union absorbs almost 60% of the value exported in 2006. Almost half of this value (45%) is purchased by Germany, which is Italy's main market, although figures are down slightly on the previous year (-2.7%) (Table 1.2.2).
The United States and Canada, second and fourth respectively, cover 28% of Veneto exports worldwide, and both markets are up on the previous year.
Also interesting is the opening eastwards to new markets, such as Russia, up by 104%; the Czech Republic, up by 37.3%; and Japan, up by 14.6%. Despite not being in the top 15 countries that import wine from the Veneto, exports to China, which ranks 27th, have increased by 113% in value.
Since 2005, exports have increased generally worldwide. Eastern Europe has experienced strong, consistent growth and, in the last year alone, wine exports have increased by 85.3%, although total exports remain fairly low at about 1%. (Figure 1.2.3).
Veneto export businesses have also increased. Over the last three years, numbers have gone up by more than 10%.
In 2006, 81% had an annual turnover of under 0.5 million euro, while 75% of export value was in the hands of 39 businesses that invoiced more than 5 million euro.
Positive export performance underlines how foreign importers are well aware of the tradition, unique taste and balanced quality-price ratio of Italian and Veneto wines, which in the long run are outselling new producers such as New Zealand, which is about to harvest and is expected to have large stocks; Chile, where emergency government subsidies to encourage extirpation and distillation reach 13-figure sums; and Australia, which is trying to reuse vines for non-alimentary purposes.

The structural situation

Although agriculture accounts for only about 2% of the total Gross Domestic Product, it is the core of major economic and institutional interests. For more than ten years, the structure of agriculture nationwide has been undergoing some drastic changes due to the closure of a large number of farms. Indeed, about one fifth have disappeared in the last five years. (Table 1.2.3).
This phenomenon is not entirely negative in that the majority of the farms that closed down had a marginal farming area and were mainly family-run. The farm type hit most was that under 2 hectares. From 2000 to 2005, Italy lost 36% of its farms with less than one hectare and 22% of its farms with between one and two hectares. What is clear, however, is that farming is becoming more of a business and farms are actually getting bigger. Indeed, although farm numbers have dropped sharply, the Utilised Agricultural Area (UAA) experienced much less serious losses and the average area of farmland has increased.
The Veneto has also lost farms and is in line with the Italian figure (-19.2%), but has lost more UAA (-6.2%). Each of the seven provinces showed different results; however, the average UAA per farm increased. (Figure 1.2.4)
Analysis of figures since 2003 reveals that generally UAA has fallen in terms of crop totals: -3.1% in Italy and -4.2% in the Veneto. However, crop share of UAA has remained almost unchanged over time. Indeed, more than half of Italy's arable land is devoted to seed crops. In comparison to 2003, this fundamental production unit recorded a drop of -4.1% in Italy, whereas the Veneto experienced a slight increase (+0.7%). The other crop sectors recorded consistent drops across the country both in surface area and in number of farms. (Figure 1.2.5)
Livestock farms have also experienced drops both in terms of the number of farms and of animals reared. Over the last few years, the number of farms has dropped by about -16% across Italy and by about 19% in the Veneto.
The Veneto ranks third behind Campania and Calabria for the number of livestock farms and, despite the poultry industry crisis and ensuing reduction of birds (-21%), the Veneto is still Italy's leading producer of poultry.
Regarding employment, in Italy in 2005, farming employed 4 million people, a drop of 11.8% on 2003, but a specific increase of 46.7% in the number of employees with open-term contracts. In the Veneto, however, the number of farm workers increased by 1.3 percentage points (about 300,000 people). This increase was most felt among employees with open-term contracts, who have more than doubled over the last few years and are set to increase in the coming years (Figure 1.2.6).

Top  Production

The economic structure of the Veneto is changing and continues to grow gradually. In 2006, the Veneto's entrepreneurial base grew by 2,543 units, taking the number of active enterprises to 459,421 units. Over the last year, the Veneto's active enterprises grew by 0.6%, ranking joint second with Campania in the national rankings (Figure 1.2.7)
At regional level, Lazio is the best performing region (+2.1%), driven mainly by Rome, which recorded a 2.7% increase in the number of enterprises (+2,030 businesses in the entrepreneurial and professional sector). The other five regions that recorded above average national growth (+0.8%) are Lombardia, Sardegna, Calabria, Sicilia and Toscana.
In economically developed countries, the service sector produces more wealth for the economy than any other macroeconomic sector and has the highest potential for entrepreneurial growth.
The growth of these enterprises is mainly explained by the migration of employment from the manufacturing industry towards services. Nevertheless, changes in production systems, fiercer international competition, plus the growing role of technology are all important factors. (Figure 1.2.8)
If we examine the figures for active service enterprises in the Veneto, the real-estate, R&D, entrepreneurial and professional sectors recorded the best results in terms of absolute value with a positive balance of 2,818 units (+5.4% on 2005). Furthermore, the positive trend for financial-brokering service enterprises continued with an annual growth of almost three percentage points.
Enterprises offering education and health services, plus "other social services", also increased, with an overall growth of 1.7% in the last year.
The hotel and restaurant sector also performed well (+1.1%), confirming that the last tourist season was, indeed, excellent.
Despite major reorganisation due to the Veneto embracing large-scale distribution, the number of trade enterprises remained stable (+0.3%).
The positive trend in the construction sector continued with a positive balance of active enterprises (2,469 units), i.e. an annual growth of 3.6%. This result was mainly due to major growth in real-estate activities, which was spurred by widespread restructuring and renovation work on the region's building heritage.
The downward trend in the Veneto's manufacturing sector is mainly due to the transformation process that has hit all advanced economies. The increase in international competition, mainly linked to labour costs, has driven the Veneto's manufacturing firms towards mergers, which has benefited the strongest and most competitive companies, ones organised in supply chains and ones concentrating on quality (Figure 1.2.9)
The manufacturing industry recorded an annual fall of 680 units (-1.0%). Almost all the main manufacturing sectors have lost stock, with the most consistent losses in furniture, sports equipment, gold and jewellery (-298 units, or 3 percentage points), wood, textiles, clothing, and leather products.
The mechanical and optics-electronic industries were stationary, whilst the only industry to increase was the food and drink industry, with the annual number of active enterprises rising by about two percentage points.
Over the last year, the Veneto's agriculture industry recorded the biggest net drop in the number of farms registered in the Business Register at the Chamber of Commerce (-2,734), a drop in active enterprises of 3%; a trend that has spread nationwide. As with the manufacturing sector, but for partly different reasons (creation of public infrastructure and changes to town-planning schemes), the fall is due to aggregation, merging and transformation of production activity. (Table 1.2.4).
The dynamics of active enterprises was fairly stable throughout the Veneto's provinces and did not vary much from the regional average. Verona is the province with biggest growth of active enterprises (+0.8%) followed by Venezia, Treviso, Vicenza and Padova. The provinces of Rovigo and Belluno suffered a slight fall.
At sectoral level, construction enterprises grew consistently, with the highest growth in the provinces of Verona (+4.7%), Treviso (+4.1%) and Padova (+3.9). Real-estate, entrepreneurial and professional activities also performed better than the regional average in the provinces of Verona (+5.9%), Treviso, Venezia and Padova (+5.7%). Enterprises in the hotel and restaurant sector also increased and performed better than the regional average (+1.1%) in the provinces of Treviso and Venezia.
Vicenza recorded the most consistent increase in active enterprises within the trade sector (+1.5%)-in a fairly undynamic sector throughout the region-whilst Rovigo and Belluno recorded the heaviest falls (about -1%) .
The number of active manufacturing and agriculture enterprises continued to drop due to the progressive tertiarisation of the region's economy. The agriculture sector saw its biggest losses in the provinces of Padova (-4.1%) and Venezia (-3,4%), whilst the biggest drop in the manufacturing sector was felt by the provinces of Vicenza (-1.9%) and Belluno (-1.8%).
The number of active enterprises, especially handicraft ones, also fell in the transport and logistics sectors, with drops of more than 3% in the provinces of Vicenza and Belluno.
Growth of more than 10%, however, was recorded by the education sector in the provinces of Treviso and Padova.

Handicraft enterprises

(Figure 1.2.10) and (Figure 1.2.11)
This report looks at handicraft enterprises because they are the backbone of the Veneto's economic and social stability, employ a large part of the active population, and have created a great deal of employment over the last few years.
In 2006, the Veneto had 147,000 active handicraft enterprises, which is about a third of the region's overall enterprises. The Veneto's handicraft enterprises continue to grow annually in line with the national trend, although growth is lower than in 2005.
These enterprises grow most strongly in the provinces of Verona, Rovigo and Treviso with an increase of about 1%, whilst Belluno recorded the sharpest annual fall with -1%.
In absolute terms, the construction sector, which encompasses about 40% of the Veneto's handicraft enterprises, makes the biggest contribution to the positive annual balance (1,876 units). In percentage terms, the last year has seen strong growth rates in information technology (+4.9%), construction (+3.3%), agriculture (+2.4%) and foodstuffs (+2.5%). The biggest drops have been felt in sectors such as textiles (-1.9%), leather (-1.2%), wood (-2.7%) and furniture (-2.9%). (Figure 1.2.12).
Development over the last five years shows great vitality in the construction industry (+18.2%), which is influenced by favourable conditions for real-estate investments, and a slowdown in manufacturing (-5%) and services (-2.8%), where the growth of handicraft enterprises providing people services (+672 units) is unable to compensate for the consistent fall in handicraft enterprises in trade (-1,155) and transport (-600).

Top  Tourism

Tourists in the Veneto
For the Veneto, 2006 was the year that marked the recovery of the tourist industry, confirming the positive trend of 2005 after the international crisis had instigated several difficult years characterised by a drop in arrivals and in the average length of holidays.
About 13.5 million tourists came to the Veneto in 2006, up 7.8% on the previous year. They stayed almost 60 million nights, +4.6% on 2005, recording the highest values of the last decade.
These increases include Italian and, especially, international tourists: arrivals increased by 7.2% and 8.2% respectively and nights spent by 2.1% and 6.6% respectively.
The Veneto is Italy's most important tourist region. For many years, it has ranked first among Italy's regions for number of nights spent. The most recent figures (for 2005) reveal that the Veneto had 16% of the national share. (Figure 1.2.13) and (Figure 1.2.14)
The most consistent tourist flows to the Veneto, both for arrivals and nights spent, were by the Germans, followed by the people from the Veneto themselves. In 2006, Germans comprised 14% of the arrivals and 19.4% of the nights spent, tourists from the Veneto comprised 10.3% of the arrivals and 17.5% of the nights spent. Besides these two major groups, the Veneto also hosted more than 10 million visitors from all over the world.
In comparison to 2005, although holidaymakers from the Veneto still topped the rankings for nights spent by Italian visitors, followed by those from Lombardia (7.2%) and from Lazio (2.5%), the rankings for foreign nations revealed an increase in the number of tourists from Holland (+11.9%) and from the United States (+13.4%), and an even steeper increase in the number of tourists from Russia (+22.2%), which jumped from 18th to 15th place in just one year.
After the losses of recent years, the number of German and Austrian visitors has started to increase again (+6.3% and +3.8% respectively). These two nationalities are still at the top of the table and their return was partly due to intensive promotion by the Veneto across Europe's cities and other parts of the world in 2006.
Germany was visited by the Veneto Tourism Road Show, which stopped off at the Tourism Exhibition in Munich, the International Tourism Exchange in Berlin, plus Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Frankfurt and other major cities during the World Cup.

Top destinations

In 2006, the overall increases of nights spent recorded by each of the Veneto's tourist destinations reveal that both Italian and international tourists flocked to all of the region's different areas. These increases were most marked in historic cities (+7%) and in beach resorts (+5%), whilst the only drops were in Italian visitors to the lakes and international visitors to spa towns, which are nevertheless compensated for within the total of destinations surveyed (Figure 1.2.15).
Although Germans and Austrians choose to holiday mainly by the Veneto's coasts or lakes, American and French visitors come to the Veneto for its historic cities. Russian visitors tend to come both for the Veneto's beach resorts and for its historic cities (Figure 1.2.16).
A look at the provinces reveals that the province of Venezia comprises more than half (54%) of all the regional nights spent thanks to its provincial capital and its beach resorts.
Verona ranks second among the Veneto's provinces for the number of nights spent (21.2%), which is concentrated mainly around Lake Garda and its provincial capital. Belluno and Padova each make up about 8% of the nights spent in the region (8.4% and 7.5% respectively), whilst the percentage is lower in the provinces of Rovigo, Vicenza and Treviso.

Economic importance

In 2006, revenue from spending by international tourists alone topped 24 billion euro (Note 1) and grew by 7.5% on the previous year. Consequently tourism can be quite rightly defined as an excellent resource. Tourism is an industry that generates economic wealth from a cultural and natural patrimony of inestimable value. In 2005, Italy was the world's fourth leading country in terms of tourist spending after the USA, Spain and France.
Closer territorial analysis of 2006 reveals that spending (Note 2) by international visitors to the Veneto was 3,845 million euro-15.9% of spending by international visitors in Italy-a figure that makes the Veneto Italy's second region after Lazio. (Figure 1.2.17)
This remarkable achievement is due to the huge number of international visitors that come to the Veneto, a share which makes the Veneto Italy's leading region with about 18% of the total of international visitors coming to Italy. This constant flow of arrivals is combined with an equally impressive performance in terms of nights spent (15.5% of Italy's total). About 70% of the flow of incoming international visitors to the Veneto come for a holiday, about 12% come for work, while the remaining 18% come for other personal reasons: study, visits to relatives and friends, medical treatment, etc.
However, the Veneto does not hold the record for the amount of average tourist spending. Spending per capita is around 438 euro compared with an Italian average of 498 euro. This figure is due to the length of visitors' stays, which is one of the briefest of all stays in Italian regions (4.8 days compared with a national average of 5.6).
Having said this, however, we should also look at the daily average spending of international tourists. The Veneto exceeds the national average of 88.4 euro with daily spending per capita of 90.7 euro and ranks fifth out of all of Italy's regions. If we look at the history of average daily spending, the Veneto overtook the national average only recently in 2005, but the gap between the two is increasing constantly (Figure 1.2.18).
The comparison of Italian regions shows that the Veneto is a region with a low number of nights spent and high average spending, alongside regions such as Lombardia and Piemonte, which, however, are characterised by high flows of business tourism (Figure 1.2.19).
If we look at spending by Italians abroad, people from the Veneto spent 1,364 million euro, which ranks the Veneto in 3rd place with 9.3% of the national total after Lombardia and Lazio. According to spending per capita, the Veneto is the region that spends least abroad (about 654 euro per traveller compared with 747 euro, the Italian average). This is probably explained by the fact that the Veneto is close to national borders, which may mean Veneto residents spend shorter, and thus less expensive, periods abroad. The Veneti spend an average of 8.2 days abroad (Italian average: 9.3 days) with an average daily spending in line with the national average of 80 euro.
The high revenues of incoming tourism and the more contained spending of outgoing tourism make the Veneto Italy's leading regions in terms of payment balance: 2,481 million euro in 2006.
If the spending of international tourism (revenue), that of Italians holidaying abroad (expenditure) and the tourist balance are taken as a percentage of GDP, we notice that the Veneto's balance is much higher than Italy's. This is not so much due to expenditure, which is similar, as to revenue, which has more of an influence on the Veneto's economy than Italy's revenue in this sector (Figure 1.2.20).
Added value within the hotel and restaurant sector should also be considered in order to highlight the overall economic importance of this sector, which is not simply bound to international tourism. The added value of the hotel and restaurant sector, which is, however, only a rough estimate of tourism's overall added value (Note 3), for the Veneto in 2004 was more than 5.5 billion euro.
The importance of added value within the hotel and restaurant sector for the Veneto's entire economy is higher than the national level (4.7% compared with 3.7%).

Employment within the tourist industry

If the Veneto has managed to stay top of Italy's tourist rankings for the last few years, with constantly growing figures, then it is down to its labour force of 108,000 employees. These numbers refer to local units classified in a generic economic category, "hotels and restaurants", and are a rough estimate of employees within the tourist sector.
The Veneto ranks second with 10.4% of Italy's employees within the sector after Lombardia, which tops the regional ranking with 16.1% (Figure 1.2.21).
The Veneto's specialisation in the tourism industry is equal to the national average: 6.3% employees in the hotel and restaurant sector per 100 employees.
Closer examination reveals that the provinces of Venezia and Belluno are the most specialised with a specialisation coefficient that tops 10% (11.2% and 10.5% respectively). Verona comes close to the regional average, whilst the remaining provinces are around 5% (Figure 1.2.22).
A more detailed look at the figures reveals that Venezia and Belluno are the most highly specialised of all the Veneto's provinces both in hotel accommodation and in catering. While Italy has only 1.3 employees per 100 working in hotels, the province of Venice has 3.8 and the province of Belluno has 3.6. Figures for catering show that Italy has 4.7 employees in this section, Venezia 6.9, and Belluno 6.3.
All the provinces have a higher number of employees in restaurants, bars and canteens than in accommodation, but the gap between the two types of activities is widest in Verona and Rovigo. Within these two provinces, specialisation is exceptionally high (5% and 4.9% respectively) and is just over both the regional (4.6%) and national (4.7%) averages (Figure 1.2.23) and (Figure 1.2.24).

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  1. The Ufficio Italiano Cambi uses a border survey to evaluate both physical and monetary flows for international tourism, excluding, however, domestic tourism. Resident and non-resident travellers are interviewed at the borders (airports, ports, roads and railways). In our processing we sought to harmonise the data of this survey with those in the 'Movimento dei clienti negli esercizi ricettivi' survey, which provides the basic analysis of tourist flows in this document. To achieve the maximum harmonisation we considered only expenditure of travellers who stayed at least one night in paid accommodation, not with relatives or friends.
  2. Tourist spending means the total consumption of goods and services by visitors and includes: accommodation, meals, museum visits, souvenirs, gifts, other personal purchases, internal transport, etc.
  3. The hotel and restaurant sector includes hotels, B&Bs and the like, youth hostels, mountain lodges, campsites and other short-term accommodation; restaurants; bars and cafes; beer-houses, pubs, wineries and the other places without kitchens; canteens; catering and banqueting.

Table 1.2.1
Percentage variations of agricultural production in the Veneto. Comparison between years 2005-2006 (*)
Figure 1.2.1
Wine production in Veneto provinces per designation - Year 2006
Figure 1.2.2
Table of wine exports per region (thousands of euro)  - Year 2006
Table 1.2.2
Wine exports of Veneto businesses per geographical area. Top 15 markets - Year 2006
Figure 1.2.3
Percentage variations for the wine exports of Veneto businesses per main geographical area - Years 2000-2006
Table 1.2.3
Farms, UAA and percentage variations. Veneto and Italy - Years 2005-2000
Figure 1.2.4
Average UAA (ha) per province. Veneto - Year 2005
Figure 1.2.5
UAA variation in Italy and in the Veneto - Years 2005-2003
Figure 1.2.6
Number of people working in companies per category of employees. Veneto - Year 2005
Figure 1.2.7
Share and annual percentage variation of active enterprises per region - Year 2006
Figure 1.2.8
Share and annual percentage variation of service enterprises in the Veneto - Year 2006
Figure 1.2.9
Share and annual percentage variation of manufacturing enterprises in the Veneto per economic sector - Year 2006
Table 1.2.4
Share and annual percentage variation of active enterprises per province - Year 2006
Figure 1.2.10
Percentage share of handicraft enterprises per province - Year 2006
Figure 1.2.11
Annual percentage variation of handicraft enterprises per province - Year 2006
Figure 1.2.12
Percentage share of handicraft enterprises in the Veneto per main economic sectors - Year 2006
Figure 1.2.13
Nights spent by tourists (Year 2000=100). Veneto - Years 2000:2006
Figure 1.2.14
Tourist flows in Italian regions (thousands of nights spent and % share) - Year 2005
Figure 1.2.15
Percentage variations 2006/05 for nights spent by Italian and international tourists per destination type
Figure 1.2.16
Nights spent in the Veneto by tourists per main countries of origin. Percentage variation 2000:2006 and weight of destination type in thousands of nights spent 2006
Figure 1.2.17
Spending by international tourists. Millions of euro in 2006 and % variations 2006/2005
Figure 1.2.18
Average daily spending of international tourists (€). Veneto and Italy - Years 2002:2006
Figure 1.2.19
Average daily spending and average length of stay in Italian regions by international tourists - Year 2006
Figure 1.2.20
Tourist balance as a share of GDP - Year 2005
Figure 1.2.21
Employees in the hotel and restaurant sector per region (thousands) - Year 2004
Figure 1.2.22
Specialisation coefficient calculated on the employees of local units in the hotel and restaurant category (*). Year 2004
Figure 1.2.23
Specialisation coefficient calculated on the employees of local units in the hotel sector (*) by province - Year 2004
Figure 1.2.24
Specialisation coefficient calculated on the employees of local units in the restaurant, bar and canteen sector (*) by province - Year 2004
Chapter 1 in figures
Chapter 1 in figures

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